ecca group south africa coal
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ecca group south africa coal

Ecca Group South Africa Coal - Evert Bioenergie

The biggest coal deposits can be found in the ecca deposits a vein of the karoo supergroup in south africa the ecca group covers approximately two thirds of the country and contains over a third of the coal reserves in the entire southern hemisphere the most important coal fields in south africa are highveld coal field waterberg

Ecca group - [email protected]

Coal is economically important , as it is South Africa’s most abundant fossil fuel and source of energy. Coal is black to brown and a soft and light rock composed of the carbon remains of plants. It is found as seams, or layers within shales and sandstones of the Ecca group. The quality of South African coal is usually low with a low heat value and a high ash content. In KwaZulu-Natal, the ...

Palynological records of the Permian Ecca Group (South ...

01/11/2014  Our main goal was to study the vegetation changes during this period of global warming and test if the climatic signals could be used to correlate the basinal Ecca group facies with the fluvio-deltaic coal-bearing strata of the Witbank Basin. The palynological record of the No. 2 Coal Seam of the Vryheid Formation indicates a cold climate, fern wetland community, characteristic of lowland alluvial plains, and an upland conifer community in the lower part of the coal

Ecca group - [email protected]

Coal is economically important , as it is South Africa’s most abundant fossil fuel and source of energy. Coal is black to brown and a soft and light rock composed of the carbon remains of plants. It is found as seams, or layers within shales and sandstones of the Ecca group. The quality of South African coal is usually low with a low heat value and a high ash content. In KwaZulu-Natal, the seams are deeper

Coal in South Africa - Wikipedia

The largest coal deposits in South Africa are to be found in the Ecca deposits, a stratum of the Karoo Supergroup, dating from the Permian period, between 280 and 250 Ma. The Ecca Group is extensive, covering around two thirds of South Africa (much of it covered by slightly younger rocks - see diagram on the left). Only the northern and north-eastern portion of these Ecca deposits is coal-bearing, but it

Palynological records of the Permian Ecca Group (South ...

01/11/2014  Our main goal was to study the vegetation changes during this period of global warming and test if the climatic signals could be used to correlate the basinal Ecca group facies with the fluvio-deltaic coal-bearing strata of the Witbank Basin. The palynological record of the No. 2 Coal Seam of the Vryheid Formation indicates a cold climate, fern wetland community, characteristic of lowland alluvial plains,

Petrographical and geophysical investigation of the Ecca ...

The term Ecca was suggested by Rubidge (1858) in for argillaceous sedimentary strata exposed in the Ecca Pass, near Grahamstown in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Thus, the use of the term Ecca outside the Main Karoo Basin is sometimes questionable as the rock types could be totally different. The group comprises of shale, mudstones, siltstones, sandstones, minor conglomerate and coal.

Dark new world of South African coal – M i N M E T

14/04/2021  It is estimated that almost 75% of this coal is used domestically. Nearly 80% of the energy needs of South Africa are taken care of by coal and over 90% of the coal consumed on the entire African continent is produced in South Africa. The biggest coal deposits can be found in the Ecca deposits, a vein of the Karoo Supergroup in South Africa. The Ecca group covers approximately two thirds of the

South African Coal - XMP Consulting

The five identified coal Seams contained in the Vryheid Formation (middle Ecca Group) are named, from the base up, as follows: No.1 Seam; No.2 Seam; No.3 Seam; No.4 Seam and No.5 Seam. In certain areas of the Coalfield, both the No.4 and No.2 Seams are split by clastic partings into the No.4 upper and No.4 lower units. The Coalfield is characterized by the fact that in the northern regions, all the coal

An overview of the Permian (Karoo) coal deposits of ...

01/01/2001  The Ecca Group outcrops in a narrow belt, striking north to south across the country. The known and potential coal deposits define a similar trend in the eastern area of the country. This distribution reflects the extent of the coal-bearing Ecca Group in this region . Dolerite sills have extensively intruded the strata, causing devolatilisation of coal and vertical displacements. The coal in

Coal - Minerals Council South Africa

South Africa’s coal resources are contained in the Ecca deposits, a stratum of the Karoo Supergroup, and date from the Permian period between 280 and 250 Ma. In general terms, they are largely located in the north-eastern quarter of the country. The coal measures are generally shallow, largely unfaulted and lightly inclined, making their exploitation suitable for opencast and mechanised ...

SOUTH AFRICAN COAL SECTOR REPORT - Energy

completed to determine economic viability and based on a mine plan, can the coal be classified as a coal reserve. South Africa’s coal resources are contained in the Ecca deposits, a stratum of the Karoo Supergroup. There are 19 coalfields in the country and they are largely located in the north-

Major Mines Projects Landau Mine

The Karoo Supergroup is lithostratigraphically subdivided into the Dwyka, Ecca and Beaufort groups, succeeded by the Molteno, Elliot and Clarens formations and the Drakensburg Formation. The Ecca Group comprises successions of formations which consists of sandstone, shale and coal and were developed within the Karoo basin locally. A number of intrusive dykes are known to occur within the

Ecca group - [email protected]

Coal is economically important , as it is South Africa’s most abundant fossil fuel and source of energy. Coal is black to brown and a soft and light rock composed of the carbon remains of plants. It is found as seams, or layers within shales and sandstones of the Ecca group. The quality of South African coal is usually low with a low heat value and a high ash content. In KwaZulu-Natal, the seams are deeper

Dark new world of South African coal – M i N M E T

14/04/2021  It is estimated that almost 75% of this coal is used domestically. Nearly 80% of the energy needs of South Africa are taken care of by coal and over 90% of the coal consumed on the entire African continent is produced in South Africa. The biggest coal deposits can be found in the Ecca deposits, a vein of the Karoo Supergroup in South Africa. The Ecca group covers approximately two thirds of the

An overview of the Permian (Karoo) coal deposits of ...

01/01/2001  The Ecca Group equivalents contain coal, but seams are relatively thin in the upper part of the coal zone. Below this zone, six to seven coal seams have been intersected. Two mineable seams thicken eastwards, with thickness variations of 1.5–4.0 m. Borehole data estimates of reserves are 2000 million tons, with cut-off widths of 1.25 m and depths less than 300 m. The coals are low-grade, high

SOUTH AFRICAN COAL SECTOR REPORT - Energy

completed to determine economic viability and based on a mine plan, can the coal be classified as a coal reserve. South Africa’s coal resources are contained in the Ecca deposits, a stratum of the Karoo Supergroup. There are 19 coalfields in the country and they are largely located in the north-

Coal - Minerals Council South Africa

South Africa’s coal resources are contained in the Ecca deposits, a stratum of the Karoo Supergroup, and date from the Permian period between 280 and 250 Ma. In general terms, they are largely located in the north-eastern quarter of the country. The coal measures are generally shallow, largely unfaulted and lightly inclined, making their exploitation suitable for opencast and mechanised ...

Major Mines Projects Elandspruit Mine

The Ecca group is known for its coal (mainly the Vryheid Formation) (5 coal seams) and uranium. Coalfields formed due to the accumulation of plant material in shallow and large swampy deltas. The Ecca Group conformably overlies the Dwyka Group and is conformably overlain by the Beaufort Group, Karoo Supergroup. It consists essentially of mudrock (shale), but sandstone-rich units occur towards

Palynological records of the Permian Ecca Group (South ...

The Permian formations of the South African Karoo Basin play a crucial role in understanding Gondwana's climate history during this time of major global changes. In this paper we present two data sets, one from the coal-bearing Vryheid Formation (Witbank Basin) and one from the Whitehill and Upper Prince Albert formations of the DP 1/78 core (NE Karoo).Our main goal was to study the vegetation ...

Hlobane Coal Mine information and photos

Hlobane Coal Mine (South Africa) Discuss in Forum; Upload a Document; Location Map; Hlobane Colliery, of the Vryheid (Natal) Railway Coal and Iron Company Ltd, is a coal mine in the magisterial district of Vryheid, Natal, producing coal from three economic seams in the Ecca Group: the Dundas, Gus, and Alfred seams. These seams are mined for their coking properties. On Monday, 12th

Major Mines Projects Landau Mine

The Karoo Supergroup is lithostratigraphically subdivided into the Dwyka, Ecca and Beaufort groups, succeeded by the Molteno, Elliot and Clarens formations and the Drakensburg Formation. The Ecca Group comprises successions of formations which consists of sandstone, shale and coal and were developed within the Karoo basin locally. A number of intrusive dykes are known to occur within the

Characterization of the coal resources of South Africa

Estimates for South Africa’s coal recoverable reserves made in 1999 range from nine to 59 billion tons; latest estimates by the Minerals Bureau suggest that 33 billion tons is a more likely figure. As much as 70% of that coal is located in the Waterberg, Witbank, and Highveld coalfields, as well as lesser amounts in the Ermelo, Free State and Springbok Flats coalfields. However, the Witbank ...

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